Teoria crítica de Paulo Freire, formação docente e o ensino de ciências nos anos iniciais de escolaridade

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Teoria crítica de Paulo Freire, formação docente e o ensino de ciências nos anos iniciais de escolaridade

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Title: Teoria crítica de Paulo Freire, formação docente e o ensino de ciências nos anos iniciais de escolaridade
Author: Souza, Ana Lúcia Santos; Chapani, Daisi Teresinha
Abstract: As demandas impostas pela sociedade da tecnologia e do conhecimento impõem novas exigências sobre a formação dos professores de Ciências Naturais. Postula-se que a educação científica ocorra desde os anos iniciais de escolaridade, para tanto, é necessário que a formação docente contemple, além dos aspectos tradicionalmente relacionados ao ensino para crianças, também aqueles relativos aos produtos e processos das ciências. Este trabalho teve por objetivo discutir as contribuições da teoria crítica de Paulo Freire para a formação de professores de Ciências Naturais, enfocando os conceitos e pressupostos dessa teoria que possam oferecer instrumentos tanto para a crítica aos atuais modelos de formação docente, quanto para as necessárias mudanças que se impõem no ensino de Ciências Naturais nos anos iniciais. Ponderamos que a formação docente para os anos iniciais fundamentada na práxis possibilita o reconhecimento do caráter histórico e mutável dos produtos da ciência e, além disso, fornece bases para a efetivação de uma prática pedagógica crítica, reflexiva e investigativa no ensino de Ciências Naturais. Concluímos apontando algumas possibilidades para a formação dos professores para os anos iniciais de escolaridade capazes de contribuir para uma formação emancipadora.The demands imposed by the society of technology and knowledge impose new requirements on the natural sciences teachers training, since it is necessary to ensure to all the acquisition of scientific knowledge to participate critically and effectively in matters involving science, technology and their multiple influences on society and environment. It is postulated that science education should occur since the first schooling years, therefore, teacher training ought to address necessarily aspects related to science’s products and processes, besides of those traditionally related to children teaching. Nationwide surveys conducted by Silva (2006), Delizoicov & Angotti (2000) and Ovigli & Bertucci (2009) reveal noticeable problems in first schooling years natural sciences teaching, coming forth from the teacher training for this education level. Taking this issue as starting point, this study aimed to discuss the contributions of Paulo Freire’s critical theory for natural sciences teachers’ training, focusing on the concepts and assumptions of this theory which can provide tools for both criticism to current models of teacher training, and for the necessary changes that are needed in the teaching of natural sciences in the first schooling years. The study is characterized as a qualitative descriptive research and was built upon the analysis of Freire’s works, of some of its commentators, as well as researchers in the field of Natural Sciences teaching. We ponder that teacher training for the first schooling years based on praxis enables the recognition of the historical and changing character of the products of science and furthermore provides bases enabling a critical reflective and investigative pedagogical practice, in the teaching of Natural Sciences in the first schooling years. We conclude by pointing out some possibilities for the first schooling years teachers training that may contribute to an emancipatory education: defining the identity of the course and the professional in accordance with the National Curriculum Guidelines, which establish instruction (teaching) as the main focus of training and work of pedagogues; discussion about the nature of science in the formation process, through the exercise of criticity and dialogicity and questioning of concrete situations, that is, problems that involve the teaching / learning of Natural Sciences, so that strategies are promoted to enhance an education focused on the formation of critical individuals.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10437/4881
Date: 2013


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